Free Review Articles


Targeting the intrinsic apoptosis pathway as a strategy for melanoma therapy
Nethia Mohana-Kumaran, David S. Hill, John D. Allen and Nikolas K. Haass

The biology of hyperpigmentation syndromes
Reinhart Speeckaert, Mireille Van Gele, Marijn M. Speeckaert, Jo Lambert and Nanja van Geel

Evolutionary and biomedical consequences of internal melanins
Sylvain Dubey and Alexandre Roulin

Sun-induced freckling: ephelides and solar lentigines
Christian Praetorius, Richard A. Sturm and Eirikur Steingrimsson

Cyclin-dependent kinases as therapeutic targets in melanoma
David M. Miller and Keith T. Flaherty

Notch signaling in melanoma: interacting pathways and stromal influences that enhance Notch targeting
Barbara Bedogni

Genetic variation in regulatory DNA elements: the case of OCA2 transcriptional regulation
Mijke Visser, Manfred Kayser, Frank Grosveld and Robert-Jan Palstra


Why is melanoma so metastatic?
Russell R. Braeuer, Ian R. Watson, Chang-Jiun Wu, Aaron K. Mobley, Takafumi Kamiya, Einav Shoshan and Menashe Bar-Eli

Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism
Lluís Montoliu, Karen Grønskov, Ai-Hua Wei, Mónica Martínez-García, Almudena Fernández, Benoît Arveiler, Fanny Morice-Picard, Saima Riazuddin, Tamio Suzuki, Zubair M. Ahmed, Thomas Rosenberg and Wei Li

Melanoma-associated leukoderma – immunology in black and white?
Hadas Prag Naveh, Uma N. M. Rao and Lisa H. Butterfield

DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint defects as drivers and therapeutic targets in melanoma
Sandra Pavey, Loredana Spoerri, Nikolas K. Haass and Brian Gabrielli

Links between Schwann cells and melanocytes in development and disease
Catherine D. Van Raamsdonk and Mugdha Deo

Melanins and melanogenesis: methods, standards, protocols
Marco d'Ischia, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Alessandra Napolitano, Stefania Briganti, José-Carlos Garcia-Borron, Daniela Kovacs, Paul Meredith, Alessandro Pezzella, Mauro Picardo, Tadeusz Sarna, John D. Simon and Shosuke Ito

Targeting melanoma by small molecules: challenges ahead (pages 464–469)
Rizwan Haq and David E. Fisher

Cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells
Jacky Bonaventure, Melanie J. Domingues and Lionel Larue

PMEL: a pigment cell-specific model for functional amyloid formation
Brenda Watt, Guillaume van Niel, Graça Raposo and Michael S. Marks

Lymphatic biomarkers in primary melanomas as predictors of regional lymph node metastasis and patient outcomes
Sandro Pasquali, Augustinus P. T. van der Ploeg, Simone Mocellin, Jonathan R. Stretch, John F. Thompson and Richard A. Scolyer

Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome: Pigmentary and Non-pigmentary Defects and Their Pathogenesis
Ai-Hua Wei and Wei Li

Rapid color change in fish and amphibians – function, regulation, and emerging applications
Helen Nilsson Sköld, Sara Aspengren and Margareta Wallin

Emerging molecular targets in melanoma invasion and metastasis
Jose L. Orgaz and Victoria Sanz-Moreno


Current opportunities and challenges: genome-wide association studies on pigmentation and skin cancer
Shasha Meng, Mingfeng Zhang, Liming Liang and Jiali Han

The sweet and bitter sides of galectins in melanoma progression
Russell R. Braeuer, Einav Shoshan, Takafumi Kamiya and Menashe Bar-Eli

Unraveling the thread of nature’s tapestry: the genetics of diversity and convergence in animal pigmentation
Marcus R. Kronforst, Gregory S. Barsh, Artyom Kopp, James Mallet, Antónia Monteiro, Sean P. Mullen, Meredith Protas, Erica B. Rosenblum, Christopher J. Schneider and Hopi E. Hoekstra

Specifying protein kinase C functions in melanoma
Mitchell F. Denning

Glutamatergic Signaling in Cellular Transformation
Jessica L. F. Teh and Suzie Chen

The sweet and bitter sides of galectins in melanoma progression
Russell R. Braeuer, Einav Shoshan, Takafumi Kamiya and Menashe Bar-Eli

Current opportunities and challenges: genome-wide association studies on pigmentation and skin cancer
Shasha Meng, Mingfeng Zhang, Liming Liang and Jiali Han

L-tyrosine and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine as hormone-like regulators of melanocyte functions
Andrzej Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski and John Pawelek


Modeling melanoma in mice
Graeme J. Walker, H. Peter Soyer, Tamara Terzian and Neil F. Box

PHGDH amplification and altered glucose metabolism in human melanoma
Edouard Mullarky, Katherine R Mattaini, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Lewis C Cantley and Jason W Locasale

A Spoonful of Sugar Makes the Melanoma Go: The Role of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Melanoma Metastasis
M.P. O’Connell and A.T. Weeraratna

The role of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase pathways in melanoma
Pablo Lopez-Bergami

Koebner’s phenomenon in vitiligo: European position paper
Nanja van Geel, Reinhart Speeckaert, Alain Taieb, Mauro Picardo, Markus Böhm, David J. Gawkrodger, Karin Schallreuter, Dorothy C. Bennett, Wietze van der Veen, Maxine Whitton, Silvia Moretti, Wiete Westerhof, Khaled Ezzedine, Yvon Gauthier, on behalf of the other VETF members

Receptor tyrosine kinases and their activation in melanoma
David J. Easty, Steven G. Gray, Kenneth J. O’Byrne, Dearbhaile O’Donnell, Dorothy C. Bennett

Botanicals for the prevention and treatment of cutaneous melanoma
Deeba N. Syed and Hasan Mukhtar

Integrins: versatile receptors controlling melanocyte adhesion, migration and proliferation
Perrine Pinon and Bernhard Wehrle-Haller

Advances in melanoma senescence and potential clinical application
Sandy Giuliano, Mickaël Ohanna, Robert Ballotti and Corine Bertolotto

Immune reactions in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions: lessons for immunotherapy
R. Speeckaert, N. van Geel, K. V. Vermaelen, J. Lambert, M. Van Gele, M. M. Speeckaert and L. Brochez

The new paradigm: retinal pigment epithelium cells generated from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells
Kapil Bharti, Sheldon S. Miller and Heinz Arnheiter

Artificial skin in perspective: concepts and applications
Carla A. Brohem, Laura B. da Silva Cardeal, Manoela Tiago, María S. Soengas, Silvia B. de Moraes Barros and Silvya


Interpretation of complex phenotypes: Lessons from the Mitf gene
Eiríkur Steingrímsson

The discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, Mitf
Heinz Arnheiter

Cancer stem cells versus phenotype-switching in melanoma
Keith S Hoek and Colin R Goding

Dendritic cell vaccination in human melanoma: relationships between clinical effects and vaccine parameters
Noriaki Nakai, Gunther Hartmann, Saburo Kishimoto and Norito Katoh

Gamma- and delta-tocotrienols inhibit skin melanin synthesis by suppressing constitutive and UV-induced tyrosinase activation
W. N. Yap, N. Zaiden, C. H. Xu, A. Chen, S. Ong, V. Teo and Y. L. Yap

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Pigmentation and Skin Cancer: A Review and Meta-Analysis
MR Gerstenblith, J Shi, MT Landi

Shades of meaning: the pigment-type switching system as a tool for discovery
Will P. Walker, Teresa M. Gunn

Sox proteins in melanocyte development and melanoma.
Melissa L. Harris, Laura L. Baxter, Stacie K. Loftus, William J. Pavan

Genetic and Environmental Melanoma Models in Fish
E. Elizabeth Patton, David L. Mitchell, Rodney S. Nairn

Growth and progression of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers regulated by ubiquitination
Koh Nakayama

Roles of Endothelin Signaling in Melanocyte Development and Melanoma
Amy Saldana-Caboverde, Lidia Kos

Stepping up melanocytes to the challenge of UV exposure
Zalfa A. Abdel-Malek, Ana Luisa Kadekaro, Viki B. Swope

Fifteen-year quest for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor target genes
Yann Cheli, Mickael Ohanna, Robert Ballotti, Corine Bertolotto


Dormancy of metastatic melanoma
Liliana Ossowski, Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso

Recent advances and hurdles in melanoma immunotherapy
Camilla Jandus, Daniel Speiser, Pedro Romero

Hear the Wnt Ror: how melanoma cells adjust to changes in Wnt
Michael P. O'Connell, Ashani T. Weeraratna

Involvement of ABC transporters in melanogenesis and the development of multidrug resistance of melanoma
Kevin G. Chen, Julio C. Valencia, Jean-Pierre Gillet, Vincent J. Hearing, Michael M. Gottesman

New insights into the active site structure and catalytic mechanism of tyrosinase and its related proteins
Concepcion Olivares, Francisco Solano

Current Challenges in Understanding Melanogenesis: Bridging Chemistry, Biological Control, Morphology and Function
John D. Simon, Dana Peles, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Shosuke Ito

Carney complex and lentiginosis
Anelia Horvath, Constantine A. Stratakis

Genetics of Human Iris Colour and Patterns
Richard A. Sturm, Mats Larsson

Use of liposomes as drug delivery vehicles for treatment of melanoma
Melissa A. Tran, Rebecca J. Watts, Gavin P. Robertson

The PTEN–AKT3 signaling cascade as a therapeutic target in melanoma
SubbaRao V. Madhunapantula, Gavin P. Robertson

Griscelli syndrome: a model system to study vesicular trafficking
Mireille Van Gele, Peter Dynoodt, Jo Lambert

Hypoxia, melanocytes and melanoma – survival and tumor development in the permissive microenvironment of the skin
Barbara Bedogni, Marianne Broome Powell

The good and the bad of chemokines/chemokine receptors in melanoma
Ann Richmond, Jinming Yang, Yingjun Su

Epigenetic marks in melanoma
Hunter W. Richards, Estela E. Medrano

Dendritic cells in the skin – potential use for melanoma treatment
Sanaa El Marsafy, Martine Bagot, Armand Bensussan, Alain Mauviel

Update on skin repigmentation therapies in vitiligo
Rafael Falabella, Maria I. Barona


The making of a melanocyte: the specification of melanoblasts from the neural crest
Aaron J. Thomas, Carol A. Erickson

POU domain transcription factors: BRN2 as a regulator of melanocytic growth and tumourigenesis
Anthony L. Cook, Richard A. Sturm

Pigmentation PAX-ways: the role of Pax3 in melanogenesis, melanocyte stem cell maintenance, and disease
Jennifer D. Kubic, Kacey P. Young, Rebecca S. Plummer, Anton E. Ludvik, Deborah Lang

The role of p53 in pigmentation, tanning and melanoma
Neil F. Box, Tamara Terzian

G-protein-coupled receptors and melanoma
Hwa Jin Lee, Brian Wall, Suzie Chen

Role of nodal signaling and the microenvironment underlying melanoma plasticity
Lynne-Marie Postovit, Naira V. Margaryan, Elisabeth A. Seftor, Mary J. C. Hendrix

Adaptation to ER stress as a driver of malignancy and resistance to therapy in human melanoma
Peter Hersey, Xu Dong Zhang

The reactive oxygen-driven tumor: relevance to melanoma
Levi Fried, Jack L. Arbiser

Transforming growth factor-ß in cutaneous melanoma
Delphine Javelaud, Vasileia-Ismini Alexaki, Alain Mauviel

An update on the honesty of melanin-based color signals in birds
Kevin J. McGraw

How to make a melanoma: what do we know of the primary clonal events?
Dorothy C. Bennett

Cancer stem cells and human malignant melanoma
Tobias Schatton and Markus H Frank


The many faces of Notch signaling in skin-derived cells
Chelsea C. Pinnix and Meenhard Herlyn

DNA microarray analyses of melanoma gene expression: a decade in the mines
Keith S. Hoek

Cutaneous melanoma in genetically modified animals
Lionel Larue and Friedrich Beermann

ATF2 on the double – activating transcription factor and DNA damage response protein
Anindita Bhoumik, Pablo Lopez-Bergami and Ze’ev Ronai

Vitiligo puzzle: the pieces fall in place
Wiete Westerhof, Marco d’Ischia

Myosins in melanocytes: to move or not to move?
Evelyne Coudrier

Melanoma invasion – current knowledge and future directions
Cedric Gaggioli and Erik Sahai

Generating quiescent stem cells
Shin-Ichi Nishikawa and Masatake Osawa

The genetics of generalized vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases
Richard A. Spritz

Molecular markers of circulating melanoma cells
Sandra Medic, Robert L. Pearce, Peter J. Heenan and Mel Ziman

Epigenetic events in malignant melanoma
Tanja Rothhammer and Anja-Katrin Bosserhoff

Regulation of human skin pigmentation and responses to ultraviolet radiation
Yoshinori Miyamura, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Barbara Z. Zmudzka, Shosuke Ito, Vincent J. Hearing et al

On the blue coloration of vertebrates
Joseph T. Bagnara, Philip J. Fernandez and Royozo Fujii

Hypopigmenting agents: an updated review on biological, chemical and clinical aspects
Francisco Solano, Stefania Briganti, Mauro Picardo, Ghanem Ghanem

The physical and chemical properties of eumelanin
Paul Meredith, Tadeusz Sarna

The other pigment cell: specification and development of the pigmented epithelium of the vertebrate eye
Kapil Bharti, Minh-Thanh T. Nguyen, Susan Skuntz, Stefano Bertuzzi, Heinz Arnheiter

Bioimmunotherapy for melanoma using fully human antibodies targeting MCAM/MUC18 and IL-8
Vladislava O. Melnikova, Menashe Bar-Eli

A review and a new hypothesis for non-immunological pathogenetic mechanisms in vitiligo
Maria Lucia Dell'Anna, Mauro Picardo

Pocket protein function in melanocyte homeostasis and neoplasia
Ian D. Tonks, Nicholas K. Hayward, Graham F. Kay

Induction of melanocytes from embryonic stem cells and their therapeutic potential
Tsutomu Motohashi, Hitomi Aoki, Naoko Yoshimura, Takahiro Kunisada

The molecular regulation of organelle transport in mammalian retinal pigment epithelial cells
Clare E. Futter

NF-?B activation in melanoma
Yukiko Ueda, Ann Richmond

Tyrosinase maturation through the mammalian secretory pathway: bringing color to life
Ning Wang, Daniel N. Hebert

Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome: a disease of protein trafficking and organelle function
Maria L. Wei

Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA): an important molecule in melanoma development and progression
Anja-Katrin Bosserhoff

Melanocortin-1 receptor structure and functional regulation
José C. García-Borrón, Berta L. Sánchez-Laorden, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes

The Silver locus product Pmel17/gp100/Silv/ME20: controversial in name and in function
Alexander C. Theos, Steven T. Truschel, Graça Raposo, Michael S. Marks

Upstream stimulating factors: highly versatile stress-responsive transcription factors
Sébastien Corre, Marie-Dominique Galibert

Melanocyte-specific, cytotoxic T cell responses in vitiligo: the effective variant of melanoma immunity?
Silvia Garbelli, Stefania Mantovani, Belinda Palermo and Claudia Giachino

The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) protein and the evidence for an intracellular signal transduction system involved in melanosome biogenesis
M. Vittoria Schiaffino and Carlo Tacchetti

Role of keratinocyte-derived factors involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian epidermal melanocytes
Tomohisa Hirobe

Pigment cell-related manifestations in neurofibromatosis type 1: an overview
Sofie De Schepper, Joachim Boucneau, Jo Lambert, Ludwine Messiaen, Jean-Marie Naeyaert

Pigment pattern formation in the medaka embryo
M. Lynn Lamoreux, Robert N. Kelsh, Yuko Wakamatsu, Kenjiro Ozato

Secrets to a healthy Sox life: lessons for melanocytes
Michael Wegner

Adhesion, migration and communication in melanocytes and melanoma
Nikolas K. Haass, Keiran S. M. Smalley, Ling Li, Meenhard Herlyn

Histone deacetylase inhibitors and malignant melanoma
Glen M. Boyle, Adam C. Martyn, Peter G. Parsons

Blackwell Publishing
Blackwell Publishing